The Siberian Paleo Asian are the predominantly dominant descendants of North and South America and represents the vast majority of the indigenous people of both continents. The peopling of the Americas and the new, plus re-examined old discoveries are a hot topic in archaeological and anthropological circles today. The new evidence that has come to light in the past two decades as to when the peopling of the Americas began is pushing the entry date of Homo sapiens into the new world much further back to the start of the Upper Paleolithic, some 50,000 years ago. Singling out the Canadian designation of “First Nations”, if history is ready to accept a re-write, then the new designation should be, “3rd or possibly even 4th Nations”.
The above title question defines the four distinct and discernible craniofacial differences of the Homo sapien species/races, which are further broken down into three sub-races of Caucasoid’s, seven sub-races of Mongoloid’s, and eight sub-races of Negroid’s, of which Australoid’s is one of the sub-races. Although the terms are deemed offensive in some social and scientific circles, for discussions about the peopling of the Americas, I will need to use them ounce, as they are the only way to make clear distinctions. And for future use, a new cranial terminology, as an example; Paleo/Holo Asian (Paleo or Holocene / shortened to Holo – continent designation).
Pre-Columbian America has a new and completely different story to tell versus the orthodox textbook renditions still being taught in high school and post secondary classrooms. The DNA evidence and a cornucopia of new archaeological discoveries are generating a need for a revision of the Siberian Paleo Asian peopling of the Americas. My own personal historical inculcation taught to me in elementary school back in the sixties was Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492, and the Paleo-Indians were the indigenous cultures of both North and South America. The Siberian Mongoloid migration across Beringia was, and has been for quite some time, the accepted theory for the peopling of the Americas. The indigenous aboriginals were first and Columbus second. Today, Columbus falls further down the list to a double digit figure positioning for his place on the discovery timeline for reaching the New World. So who did come first and when? What new evidence is there to alter the orthodox explanation? How many migrations took place over the past 50,000 years? I will start with the earliest discoveries that point to Brazil and Topper site in South Carolina, USA as being the Eden of the Americas.
Pedra Furada Brazil: An area in northeastern Brazil that embodies a collection of over 800 archaeological sites. The controversial challenges from these sites have mostly come from American archaeologists who have never been to the sites, but carbon dating of charcoal found with fragmented animal bones from around 46,000 B.C.E. has been validated repeatedly, with calibrated dates in the ranges up to 58,000 B.C.E and earlier dates of 30,000 B.C.E. The date ranges are all well before the accepted orthodox of Clovis First entry into the Americas from 9500 B.C.E. to 9000 B.C.E. The argument that the artifacts are geofacts of falling rock flakes from the rock shelters walls above and the charcoal is from a bush fire have merely been proposed without onsite investigations by the critics. The fragmented animal bones are a common distinct find in the refuge of all hominid species hearths. Fragmenting animal bones to get to the bone marrow is a distinctly hominid trait. The bones and the charcoal were found in the same strata layer. The quartzite artifacts excavated at the 38,000 B.C.E. level show tool purpose and human hand manipulation. There are around 15,000 images and more painted on rock walls encompassing several of the 800 sites. The date ranges are from 33,000 B.C.E. to 7000 B.C.E. and earlier. Images of the very large glyptodants and pampatheres, extinct relatives of armadillos that cease to exist beyond the end of the last Ice Age, could not have been conjured up by post Clovis artists with scenes of people riding on the backs of the big creature and holding their tails. Two dozen skulls from various locations in Brazil display distinctly Negroid features and date ranges from 10,000 B.C.E. to 7000 B.C.E. The skull of a woman dubbed “Luzia” that has been marvelously reconstructed shows distinctly Negroid features. One needs only to Google, “images of Luzia” to confirm her African heritage. Walter Neves of the University of Sao Paulo has stated that the skulls found prior to 7000 B.C.E. are all Paleo/Holo African, and all skulls found after 5000 B.C.E. are predominantly Holo American. The evidence suggests that South America was populated first by Africans who were then supplanted by Paleo/Holo Asians/Americans descendants through violence and assimilation. An overall controversial theory indeed, but one that has very plausible theoretic and substantiated facts to validate a peopling of the Americas from the African continent.
Northern Australia: Discovered by archeologist Grahame Walsh painted on a rock shelter is an image of a boat, the oldest painting of a boat in the world. It has four occupants depicted and a high bow at the front. It is not a calm water craft, but an ocean designed boat. Although the date ranges for this rock art start at 15,000 B.C.E. and Mr Walsh suggests that they could date as far back as 50,000 B.C.E., they need better dating tests. Australian Aborigines are of African descent and would definitely needed water crafts to people the Australian continent which they did around 60,000 B.C.E. +/- 4000 years. The east coast Upper Paleolithic Africans would definitely have the resources to create ocean going water craft. Accidental crossings of the Atlantic could have happened numerous times from 50,000 B.C.E. to the end of the last Ice Age. A journey from Africa to the South American continent could be done in three weeks with ocean current drift and paddle power. This is a plausible explanation that lends credence to all the Brazilian discoveries. The Brazilian discoveries should be seen as evidence for ocean water craft building abilities of African cultures before Clovis First timelines. Accidental colonization of South America from Africa or Southern Europe could have taken place numerous times from 50,000 B.C.E. to 1500 C.E. and it most likely did happen.
Cristina and Ursula Calderon: Are sisters from an aboriginal tribe (Yaghan a.k.a. Fuegians) that remained relatively isolated and lived a very Neolithic life style as late as the 1930’s in the archipelago of Terra del Fuego, Chile. Christina is now the last living full blooded Yaghan person left alive today. DNA test of the sisters revealed Australoid markers. So how did these two indigenous sisters of isolated South America who had no gene pool contact with modern Australian aborigines come to have ancient Australian markers? They both do have Pale/Holo American DNA markers as well and appear to be distinctly from that lineage. Assimilation into the conquering Paleo/Holo American culture that most likely took place 7000 to 9000 years ago was a way for Cristina and Ursula’s ancestors to survive. What now seems to be the strongest conjecture is when the Siberian Paleo Indians entered South America, and when they encountered the indigenous Paleo African population they either killed, enslaved or assimilated whoever they encountered. The transformation from Eden-like scenes on the rock shelter walls that were drawn before the Paleo Indian incursion, to scenes of violence and execution is most likely the story/fate of the Calderon sister’s ancestors. Why is there virtually no evidence of Negroid existence in South America after 5000 B.C.E.? The first new world holocaust is the most plausible explanation.
The Hookworm parasite: Trichuris trichiura or hookworm is a parasite that requires a human or animal host for part of its life cycle. Hookworm is a tropical parasite whose origins can be traced to continental Europe and Africa. The larvae requires also as part of its life cycle to incubate in soil from temperature ranges of 17C⁰ to 30C⁰ with a sweet spot egg incubation temperature of 22C⁰. No evidence of hookworm from a modern or ancient host can be found in Siberia, The Aleutians, Alaska or Canada. Luiz Ferreira and Adauto Araujo, paleoparasitologists from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Brazil have documented four finds from three different sites. They found in the coprolites and mummies evidence of this tropical parasite. The earliest example comes from a 900 B.C.E Peruvian mummy. From Minas Gerais they found hookworm eggs in a 1500 B.C.E. coprolite and a 2000 B.C.E. mummy. And the oldest discovery from Boqueirao do Sitco, a coprolite sample that dates to around 5300 B.C.E. This parasite could not have been brought to tropical America via Beringia. It had to migrate quickly by some conduit while maintaining tropical latitude. Pinworm has very traceable Mongoloid host transference via Siberia into the Americas, but it cannot be used in the counter argument camp as the successful example of how hookworm could have gotten to tropical America via a northern host. And animals could not have migrated fast enough from tropical Asia, through Siberia to America to achieve the task either. Without a doubt, the only plausible way for this parasite to exist in human coprolite examples that date back over 7000 years, is ocean migration. A hookworm egg or larvae surviving and ocean debris voyage is a weak counter argument, or an intercontinental avian depositor. The hookworm had a Homo sapien host and this evidence from Brazil should on its own be the upside down slam dunk definitive documented and peer reviewed piece of evidence to change the orthodox paradigm on the peopling of the Americas topic. But it sadly has gone totally under the radar. Why?
The Topper Site: There has never been much reason to dig in North America below strata layers of 14,000 B.C.E. at archaeological sites. Once you get past 11,000 B.C.E. you should not find any evidence of human occupation because the accepted occupation theories via the northern route only allowed entry of the Paleo Indian hunter gathers through the ice free corridor. The ice free corridor has not yielded any significant early entry archaeological finds. The evidence from Bluefish Caves Yukon (Canada) has yielded a mammoth bone with possible human spear point markings and a date of 26,000 B.C.E., but it could be evidence only of an occupation in this northern region that was still blocked by the ice wall. The corridor sites of Charlie Lake Caves, Vermillion Lake and Wally’s Beach site are all dated around 9000 B.C.E. to 8500 B.C.E., much earlier dates than that of the later Clovis sites that dominate the southern USA. A south to north migration theory is the more accepted possibility based on DNA evidence from bison remains that they came from southern herds.
The Topper site was a well used chert quarry occupied by Clovis culture tool makers that has revealed lithic artifacts from pristine strata layers. Al Goodyear, professor at the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, has gone much deeper with the excavation at the Topper site, down to a 50,000 B.C.E. layer. On the way down he discovered artifacts in the 14,000 B.C.E. layers and at the 50,000 B.C.E. layers, he found charcoal and date-able organic materials that he claims are from a hearth. This has been known now for over a decade and the Pre-Clovis search and evidence to support an earlier occupation of North America is gaining a wider acceptance, but there is still lots more digging to do. The map link* included below shows that the collection of Clovis and Pre-Clovis artifacts are concentrated in the south and eastern parts of the continent, and not so much in the west and ice free corridor. If there is more evidence to be found in the ice free corridor, then more work in this area is required to support the migration hypothesis. As there are now revised geological questions as to when the corridor did become ice free. New evidence suggests that it did not open up till after 9000 B.C.E..
What have and should be changing the paradigms are the new discoveries, mostly in the last two decades that date further back than the accepted Clovis First timeline. Here is a quick selection list of North and South American Pre-Clovis sites from http://www.timelineforhomosapiens.com;
53,000 B.C.E. – 51,000 B.C.E. Pedra Furada (Brazil) Site BPF 1 Radiocarbon dates on charcoal (ABOX-SC test Canberra).
46,000 B.C.E. – 30,000 B.C.E. Pedra Furada (Brazil) Contested site. C-14 dating of charcoal in shelters (N. Guidon).
48,000 B.C.E. Topper Site (USA) Al Goodyear’s South Carolina site that has peer reviewed Carbon dating.
40,000 B.C.E. – 25,000 B.C.E. Beringia (Siberia & Alaska) Over 15,000 years, 100 to 1000 mile wide land bridge.
38,000 B.C.E. 325 Footprints in Ash (Mexico) Layer below 100,000/70,000BP – layer above 40,000/9000BP.
34,000 B.C.E. Pendejo Cave (USA) Human modified horse bone. A fingerprint in a clay hearth. 5 other artifacts.
33,000 B.C.E. Circle Ranch Cave (USA) Two layers of Carbon dated charcoal. Created by humans or nature?
33,000 – 28,000 – 21,000 – 15,000 – 11,000 B.C.E. Pedra Furada Cave Paintings (Brazil) various dates.
31,000 B.C.E. Monte Verde (Chile) Tom Dillehay’s controversial dating of charcoal from a lower level hearth.
30,000 B.C.E. -23,000 B.C.E. Pedra Furada (Brazil) 4 of 560 artifacts display human techniques to create.
27,900 B.C.E. +/- 650 years. Toca do Boqueirao (Brazil) Charcoal and prepared orcher pigment.
22,000 B.C.E. Tlapacoya Site (Mexico) Pre-Clovis site with dating potentially affected by volcano tepra.
18,000 B.C.E. – 16,000 B.C.E. Cactus Hill (USA) Pre-Clovis artifacts. Site is a redeposit site (controversial).
17,000 B.C.E. & 10,000 B.C.E. Pendejo Cave (USA) Carbon dated human hair. No DNA link to the 4 N.A. lineages.
17,000 B.C.E. – 14,000 B.C.E. Meadowcroft Rockshelter (USA) 2000 lithic artifacts, 150 fire pits, 3000 yrs of occupation.
16,000 B.C.E. Solutrean Spear Point found in a Mastodon Skull (USA) Fisherman recovered edge of continental shelf.
14,220 B.C.E. – 12,400 B.C.E. Debra L. Friedkin (USA) 15,000 lithic artifacts including 56 distinct tools.
14,000 B.C.E. – 13,000 B.C.E. Topper Site (USA) Pre-Clovis site. Bifacial flaking on points.
14,000 B.C.E. – 12,000 B.C.E. Gault Site (USA) Pre-Clovis & Clovis occupations through to 5600 B.C.E.
13,500 B.C.E. Buttermilk Creek (Texas USA) Pre-Clovis occupation. 15,528 stone artifacts.
12,500 B.C.E. – 12,000 B.C.E. Paisley Caves (USA) 14 coprolites that date to this time range. Baskets and cordage.
12,500 B.C.E. Meadowcroft Rockshelter (USA) Pre-Clovis site in Pennsylvania. Unfluted bifacial points.
12,000 B.C.E. Pikimachay Cave (Peru) Oldest plant remains of a bottle gourd. Stone points & choppers.
12,000 B.C.E. Monte Verde (Chile) Small band of people inhabited the area.
11,850 B.C.E. Manis Mastodon (USA) Mastodon skeleton with a mastodon bone point embedded in a rib.
11,000 B.C.E. Comet over Canada-Boom N.A. wide fire storm. Wipes out megafauna. Instant Glacial conditions.
11,000 B.C.E. – 9500 B.C.E. Younger Dryas (Northern Hemisphere) Abrupt climate change. Ice core evidence.
10,500 B.C.E. Ramah Bay Labrador Spear Point found in Vermont (USA-Canada) Watercraft is the only explanation.
10,260 B.C.E. +/- 40 years. Pedra Furada (Brazil) Three teeth dated (1987 find – Garrincho).
There are, without a doubt, more sites and artifacts not included in this brief timeline, and I have included both continents to help explain my revised theory as to when this continent was initially accessed by our Homo Sapien ancestors.
Access to the Americas via Beringia was possible from 40,000 to 25,000 years ago, with the opening and closing of the MacKenzie corridor and coastal routes (now submerged and hiding significant occupation evidence) before the encroachment of the great Ice Sheet that reached its maximum after 23,000 B.C.E. to 20,000 B.C.E. and the evidence for similar animal species in both Siberia and America bares evidence for this assumption. The Tongass Cave Project in Alaska has revealed a multitude of animal bones from current and extinct animal species. Bear bones that date to 40,000 B.C.E. and seal bones that date to 15,560 B.C.E. and a 7780 B.C.E. human jaw bone. If bears and seals and a variety of other animals could have existed here over this epoch it is quite conceivable that humans could have as well. Conditions to enter North America were available to 40,000 year old Paleolithic hunter gathers well before the ice free corridor timeline. The now submerged coastline from Alaska to California could well have supported early explorers and their occupation evidence is long gone. The animals arrived here when the corridor and coastal shore routes were open and it is very plausible that earlier hunter gathers followed them over here during this epoch. Paleo Asian DNA is representative of the vast majority of the indigenous people of both Americas. This is yet another challenge to the Clovis first migration theory, but one that cannot be ruled out entirely. More on the DNA evidence next.
Haplogroups A, B, C, D & X: Haplogroup is DNA speak that pertains to everyone’s grouping type with regards to ancestral origins. Letters are assigned to specific haplotypes with additional letters and numbers to differentiate subgroups or subclades. A, B, C, D, have direct Asian origins where as X is nowhere to be found in western Siberia. The X markers can be found in Eastern and Mediterranean Europeans, the Druze in the Near East, the Caucasus and the Atlay people of southwestern Siberia. The Atlay region is 5600 kilometers or 3500 miles from the Bering Strait. The X marker can be found in 25% of the Algonquian people, 15 % of the Sioux, 11% to 13% of the Nuu-Chah-Nulth, 7% of the Navajo and 5% of the Yakama. All central and eastern native tribes. “X” is definitely a pre-Columbian marker. How did “X” find its way into North America? It is a 30,000 to 20,000 year old genetic mutation with origins in the areas of Europe and Asia as mentioned above. From the Atlay region through Alaska to central North America there is no evidence of Haplogroup “X” amongst any of the indigenous populations.
There was a frozen ice bridge that was 500 to 1000 miles wide and formed every winter in the Atlantic Ocean on the edge of the Glacier face. This ice bridge was a yearly occurrence during the height of the last Glacial Maximum. It is possible that back and forth migrations could have taken place. But let’s examine Dennis Stanford’s Solutrean Hypothesis next. *I’ve included a link to the counter claim proposed by the research article in American Journal of Physical Anthropology to the Solutrean Hypothesis and I cannot find an explanation in this article that dismisses the controversial hypothesis. They argue that the “C4c” (a deeply rooted Asian marker) and “X2a” have direct parallel genetic origins. Where are the “X” markers and all other subclades that should have been deposited on the route through Eastern Siberia to America?
The Solutrean Hypothesis; Let me state first off that I have come to accept this hypothesis as one of the best explainable explanations for a portion of the peopling of North America. Denis Stanford and Bruce Bradley are the main proponents of this European migration theory. Their ice edge corridor theory will never reveal a fossil artifact or watercraft sample, but a comparison of Solutrean and Pre-Clovis/Clovis tool making technologies demonstrates similarities that are not found anywhere else on the planet. To quote from their 2004 “North Atlantic Ice-edge Corridor” article;
If archaeologists continue to insist on direct evidence for the manufacture and use of watercraft from early shoreline sites, most of which are now deeply inundated, we shall continue to be frustrated in our attempts to understand the spread of humans around the world. This myopic landlubber’s view sees water as an impediment to travel, whereas many technologically simple cultures view water as a highway, and the means of relatively simple travel and transport.
Regardless of how issues of the antiquity and use of watercraft are resolved, and even though it is clear that Asian cultures contemporary with Clovis moved into the Americas, technological evidence for a pre-Clovis Asian ancestor is still totally absent. This situation requires us seriously to consider alternative working hypotheses for the origins of Clovis technology. Either our expectations concerning technological requirements are incorrect or eastern Asia is not the source area. As mentioned above, Clovis technologies are complex and sophisticated and were probably developed over a lengthy period of time. Further, Clovis weaponry represents an entirely different mind-set than do the long-lasting nearly pan-Asian inset micro-blade technologies. Hence, we feel that we should not abandon our technological expectations until we examine the possibility of an alternative geographical source area.
I personally do not agree with Stanford and Bradley when they said in 2004 that “evidence for the Asian ancestor is still totally absent”, as there are now several more discoveries today that are pre-Solutrean in the Americas. But I do agree whole heartily with their Solutrean hypothesis. What needs to be reconsidered is when did our ancestors start using ocean worthy watercraft? A 10,500 B.C.E. stone point found in Vermont has been verified to be from rock quarried at Ramah Bay Labrador. It could only have been transported by an ocean worthy watercraft. The Solutreans of Eastern Europe would have been quite capable of exploiting the seal harvest on the edge of the Atlantic glacier. They and their earlier relatives had survived for quite some time on the edge of a glacier with very harsh and cold conditions. If land based resources in winter were scant, then finding food in the ocean would be easier with ice bridges and ice flows for hunting pedestals. There are several cave paintings depicting very alive and frolicking seals, which lends credence to the case that they were modeled in their natural habitat. A bountiful resource of food and fat that was relatively easy to exploit. Follow that resource too far and you just might accidentally end up on, what would be dry land because of lower sea levels, the Grand Banks off Newfoundland. The need to try and return to Europe would be lessened because of the new fauna to exploit. As mentioned earlier, the possibility that return voyages took place is a plausible argument as well. The greatest argument for the theory is the concentration of artifacts that have been found in the eastern USA. The technological similarities between Solutrean, Pre/Clovis and Clovis artifacts cannot be ignored. Migrations in the American archaeological record reveal a more east to west migration versus a north to south route. There are more examples that Stanford and Bradley have uncovered and detailed in their book. “Across Atlantic Ice” and I will end without presenting more examples, but I would argue that it is time to dispel the Clovis First model. This new revisionist information that has been accumulating over the past two decades deserves validation. All academics stuck in the Clovis First trench need to surrender. http://planet.uwc.ac.za/nisl/Conservation%20Biology/Karen%20PDF/Clovis/Bradley%20&%20Stanford%202004.pdf
There are still several other examples to delve into on this topic (to site just one more example, the many B.C.E. pre-Columbian Caucasoid skull discoveries in the USA) and I will endeavor to figure out roughly where Christopher Columbus slots into the timeline of, “Discoverers of the New World” in a future post. Suffice it to say that as more and more evidence of the peopling of the Americas is revealed, a paradigm shift of acceptance must surely follow and a historical rewrite of the text books is required. To put more effort into validating the old, and what now must be regarded as a weak Clovis Fist model, will be a complete and utter waste of time by the staunch archaeological fraternity who are ignoring the new evidence. Archaeological observer…to orthodox proponent…smarten up!! The evidence is potentially suggesting an African, Siberian and European migration to the Americas, if it can be believed, all close to the same time, forty to fifty thousand years ago. The number of migration waves may…pardon me…will unfortunately never be known.